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Additional Information on Risk and Protective Factors
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Risk Factor
Domain
Protective Factor
  • Inadequate life skills.
  • Lack of self-control.
  • Lack of assertiveness.
  • Lack of peer refusal skills.
  • Low self-esteem and self-confidence.
  • Emotional and psychological problems.
  • Favorable attitude about substance use.
  • Rejection of common values and religion.
  • School failure.
  • Early antisocial behavior.
Individual
  • Impulse control.
  • Acquisition of life skills.
  • Willingness to seek help.
  • High self esteem.
  • Optimistic attitude & adaptability.
  • Family conflict and domestic violence.
  • Family disorganization.
  • Lack of family cohesion.
  • Social isolation of family.
  • Heightened family stress.
  • Family attitudes favorable to drug use.
  • Ambiguous, lax, or inconsistent rules.
  • Poor child supervision.
  • Unrealistic expectations for development.
Family
  • Parents seek prenatal care.
  • Parents develop close bond with child.
  • Education is valued and encouraged.
  • Stress in managed well.
  • Parents spend quality time with their children.
  • Use of high-warmth/low-criticism parenting.
  • Parents express clear expectations.
  • Parents encourage supportive relationships.
  • Family responsibilities are shared.
  • Affiliation with delinquent peers.
  • Association with substance using peers.
  • Susceptibility to peer pressure.
  • Strong external focus of control.
Peer
  • Involved in drug-free activities.
  • Respect authority.
  • Bond together in positive peer groups.
  • Appreciate the talents of others.
  • Ambiguous, lax or inconsistent rules.
  • Favorable staff attitudes toward alcohol and drug use.
  • Poor student management practices.
  • Substance availability on school grounds
  • Lack of school bonding.
School
  • Teachers express high expectations.
  • Staff encourages goal-setting.
  • Staff act as nurturing caretakers.
  • Teachers encourage pro-social development.
  • Staff provides leadership opportunities.
  • Staff offers decision-making opportunities.
  • Parents are involved in school activities.
  • School offers drug-free activities.
  • Community disorganization
  • Values/norms supporting drug use
  • Lack of community bonding
  • Lack of cultural pride.
  • Lack of bicultural competence.
Community
  • Norms and public policies support non-use.
  • Access to resources.
  • Provision of supportive networks.
  • Social and bonding opportunities.
  • Youth are involved in community service.

 

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